ddi: The Data Defect Index for Samples that May not be IID
Implements Meng's data defect index (ddi), which represents
the degree of sample bias relative to an iid sample. The data defect
correlation (ddc) represents the correlation between the outcome of interest
and the selection into the sample; when the sample selection is independent
across the population, the ddc is zero. Details are in Meng (2018)
<doi:10.1214/18-AOAS1161SF>, "Statistical Paradises and Paradoxes in Big Data (I):
Law of Large Populations, Big Data Paradox, and the 2016 US Presidential
Election." Survey estimates from the Cooperative Congressional Election Study
(CCES) is included to replicate the article's results.
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